Hawai‘i Volcanoes 2016

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Four months after the eruption HVO scientists began drilling into the lake, reaching only 2.7 m (9 ft) before encountering red-hot lava. By 1988 only traces of melt remained at 73-100 m (240-330 ft). The ‘ama‘u fern is one of the first plants to grow on new lava.

All images copyright © 2016 F.W. Vollmer and may not be used without permission.