From Indian Gardens (out of view at center bottom) the ascent steepens, climbing up through the Paleozoic formations, including the prominent Mississippian Redwall limestone (340 Ma, at center), and the overlying Supai Group. The Permian Kaibab limestone (270 Ma, at left) forms the canyon rim. In the distance the gray Kaibab can be seen capping the north rim, the prominent white band below is the Permian Coconino sandstone (275 Ma).
All images copyright © 2016 F.W. Vollmer and may not be used without permission.